ʻO ka pāʻani KITE a ka poʻe Vietnamese

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     II nā lā i hala, he hoʻokūkū ʻoiaʻiʻo ka pāʻani lupe, a ʻo nā makana i hāʻawi ʻia i ka poʻe lanakila he mau mea waiwai.

             Ma ke ʻano he hōʻoia, loaʻa kekahi ʻōlelo maʻamau penei:

“E paa pono i ke kaula /Cầm dây cho chắc
E hoʻoulu pinepine /Lúc lắc cho đều
I hiki iaʻu ke lele i ka lupe /Để bo đám riêu 1
No ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi laiki iā ʻoe /Kiếm gạo cơm ăn.”

    At keia manawa, i ka kauhale Vo-Duong (kapa mau ʻia ʻo Tri village, ʻāina ʻo Bắc Ninh), hoʻonohonoho mau nā kānaka i kēlā me kēia makahiki, i ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ke kauwela he hoʻokūkū lupe. He helu nui o nā amateurs kūikawā i kēia pāʻani i hoʻohana e komo i loko.

     KʻO nā mea pāʻani pono e hana ʻia e ka poʻe akamai, akamai i ka hana ʻana a me nā ʻenehana lele lele.

     TʻO ke kaula i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hāpai ʻana i nā lupe liʻiliʻi i hana ʻia me nā lamela lahilahi o “ʻO Jiang" (Dendrecalamus patelaris), hiki ke pani ʻia e ka pulupulu a i ʻole ke kaula silika.

     WʻO nā lupe nui, ʻo ka hana ʻana i ke kaula a me ke kiʻi e pono ai ka hana lōʻihi loa, me ka mālama nui.

     IʻOiai ʻo ka ʻokoʻa ma waena o nā lupe nui a me nā lupe liʻiliʻi, hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale i ʻelua mau ʻano lupe: ʻo ka huelo, a me ka huelo ʻole.

     WʻO ka Vietnamese, ʻaʻole like nā ʻano lupe a pau i hāʻawi ʻia e nā kānaka. Hōʻike lākou i nā kumuhana like ʻole a me nā ʻano, ʻo ka hapa nui o lākou e hōʻike ana i nā hōkū a me nā holoholona.

     Winaina paha ko lakou mau ano, he papa ia i hanaia me ka ohe a uhiia me ka "giấy bàn" (pepa laiki). He kaula liʻiliʻi i kapa ʻia ʻo “lèo” ua nakinakiia, ma ka hua palapala Y, pololei ma ko lakou aoao waena. ʻO ka hapa nui o nā lupe i hana ʻia e nā mea pāʻani, ʻike pinepine ʻia, ʻaʻole kūʻai ʻia kekahi o lākou.

(Ma muli o kahi ʻatikala a Mr. Ngô Quý Sơn, i paʻi ʻia e ka Indochina Institute for the Studies of Man)

 

I. Lupe huelo ole

a. ʻO ka lupe /Diều vàng

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Fig.1: Vàng kite

    Tʻo ia "Diều vàng” ua kapa ʻia ka lupe maʻalahi. Ua like ia me ka oviform me nā ʻēheu elongated. Hiki iā mākou ke hālāwai me ka nui loa "Diều vàng”, ʻo kekahi a hiki i 3 mika ka lōʻihi a me 1 mika ka laulā. Hiki ke hāpai ʻia kēlā lupe a lele kiʻekiʻe, mahalo wale nō i ka ikaika o nā ʻōpio ikaika loa.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b. Ka ʻēheu ʻēheu o Moor-hen /Diều cánh cốc

     Tʻo ia "Diều cánh cốc” i hana ʻia me ʻelua pūʻulu ʻohe e hui ana ma waena. He 8 ke ʻano o ka moʻo hoʻopaʻa.

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Fig.2: Moor.hen-kite

 

c. Lupe iʻa /Diều con cá

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Fig.3: Lupe i'a

     TʻO kāna ʻano lupe e hoʻohālike i ʻelua iʻa, i hui pū ʻia. Hoʻopili kekahi i ka pepa ma luna o nā iʻa ʻelua a hoʻonani iā ​​​​lākou me nā kaha kiʻi i mea e hāʻawi ai i ka pāʻani i ke ʻano o nā iʻa pili ʻelua.

 

d. Lepe lele /Diều con bướm

     Oma ke poʻo o ka pepeke, hoʻoponopono kekahi i ʻelua lamellae ʻohe a me ka lahilahi, e hōʻike ana i ka antenna o ka pepeke.

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Fig.4: Lepe-lele

 

e. Crow kite /Diều con quạ

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Kiʻi.5: ʻEke-kuʻe

   

 

 

 

 

Tʻo ia "Diều con quạ” ua like kona ʻano me ka lele lele. ʻO ka ʻokoʻa wale nō ʻo ka "Diều quạ” ʻaʻohe ona maka, ʻaʻohe wāwae, ʻaʻohe ʻimi. Ua like kona kino me ka huinakolu loihi.

 

 

 

f. ʻAno "thập" kite /Diều chữ thập

   TʻO kāna ʻano lupe maʻalahi loa, lele ʻia e nā keiki ma lalo o ʻumi makahiki. He ʻelua ʻāpana ʻohe i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i loko o ke keʻa. ʻOi aku ka lōʻihi o ka ʻāpana kū o ka ʻohe ma mua o ka ʻohe.

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Fig.6: Character'Thập”-kite

 

g. Pillow kite /Diều cái gối

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Fig.7: Uluna-lupe

   TUa like kona ʻano lupe me nā lupe ʻEulopa (*). He ʻano like kona ʻano like ʻole a me ʻelua mau ʻāpana i hoʻopaʻa ʻia e nā lāʻau ʻohe liʻiliʻi ʻehā, ʻo ia kona ʻano. Hoʻihoʻi ʻia nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua me ka pepa. ʻO ka hapa i koe he mea ʻole, ʻaʻohe spine a ʻaʻohe huelo. Lele ʻia ka pillow kite ma nā kauhale o Nam Định.

 

II. Lupe me ka huelo

a. Papa-moe lele /Diều cánh phân

    TʻO kona ʻano lupe me ke ʻano o ka ʻāʻī, piʻo māmā ma kona ʻaoʻao ʻelua. He mea maʻalahi kona kiʻi. Hoʻopili kekahi i kona ʻāpana haʻahaʻa i ke kaula, e like me nā ʻano lupe ʻē aʻe a pau, a ʻo ka hope, hoʻopaʻa kekahi i kahi huelo i hana ʻia me nā ʻāpana pepa i hoʻopili ʻia i kahi māhele ʻohe liʻiliʻi.

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Fig.8: Plank.bed-kite

 

b. Luna lupe /Diều mặt trăng

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Fig.9: Luna-lupe

    THe poepoe kona ano lupe a he kookoo kupaa i paa ai ka poai ohe. Hoʻopau ʻia e kahi huelo lōʻihi.

 

c. scolopendrium lupe /Diều con rết

    Tnui wale kona ʻano lupe a ʻike ʻia ua lele ʻia ma kahi kokoke i ka kūlanakauhale ʻo Nam Định, ma kahakai o ka muliwai Vi Hoang. Manaʻo kekahi poʻe he mea hana ia na ka Pākē, a ua kapa ʻia ʻo ia no ka mea, i ka wā i hāpai ʻia ai i ka lewa, ua like ia me kahi scolopendrium nunui.

     OʻO ka ʻāpana ʻohe o hoʻokahi mika ka lōʻihi, hoʻopili kekahi i ʻelima pōʻai ʻohe o nā ʻano like ʻole.

    Tʻo ka pōʻai nui ma waena ka ihu o ka holoholona. ʻElua mau pōʻai liʻiliʻi ma nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua o ka ihu o ka holoholona ka maka o ka scolopendrium. ʻElua mau pōʻai liʻiliʻi ʻē aʻe, waiho ʻia ma waho o nā maka ʻelua, nā pepeiao o ka scolopendrium. Ma lalo o ka ihu, hoʻopili kekahi i ka ʻohe arc e hoʻohālikelike ai i ka lehelehe ʻoi o ka scolopendrium, a ma lalo o nā maka, hoʻoponopono kekahi i kekahi arc nui aʻe e hōʻike i kona lehelehe haʻahaʻa.

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Fig.10: Scolopendrium-kite

    BAia ma hope o ka ihu o ka scolopendrium he mau pōʻai ʻē aʻe i ʻokoʻa ka helu ma waena o ke kanalima a hiki i ke kanaono o lākou, ma ka lōʻihi e hiki, i kekahi manawa, kanalima mika. Ua like ke ano o keia mau poai me ka ihu, a ua paa i na kaula ekolu. I ka pōʻai hope, hoʻopili kekahi i ʻelua mau ʻāpana i hana ʻia i ka pepa a i ʻole ke siliki māmā, ʻo ia ka antennae o ka huelo o ka holoholona. Hoʻihoʻi ʻia nā ʻili āpau āpau me ka pepa mānoanoa, i uhi ʻia me ke kāpili persimmon, a i ʻole me ka siliki maka. Ma ke ʻano he hiʻohiʻona kūikawā, ʻokoʻa kēia ʻano lupe mai nā ʻano lupe ʻē aʻe a pau i hōʻike ʻia ma luna nei, ʻaʻole wale no ka nui a ʻoi aku ka paʻakikī, akā no ka lawelawe ʻana a me ka hana ʻana; ʻo ka hope, no kona huelo, ʻoiai, ua lele ʻia i ka lewa, ʻo kēia huelo, ma kahi o ka iho ʻana, lele kiʻekiʻe i ka lewa, ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe ma mua o kona poʻo.

 

noka :
1: "đám riêu” ma ka ʻōlelo Vietnamese ʻo ia ka lele ʻana i ka lupe kiʻekiʻe loa i ka lewa.
2: Mahalo au iā Mr. PAUL LEVY, Ke poʻo o ke Keʻena Archeological o ke Kula Farani Hikina Loa, ka mea i ʻoluʻolu e haʻi mai iaʻu e pili ana i kēia ʻano like.

noka :
◊ Puna: ʻO ka hoʻonohonoho o "ʻEhā Buke o Tết", ʻO ka hoki. Mai. Kauka ma ka Moolelo NGUYỄN MẠNH HÙNG, Pelekikena o ka Institute of Vietnam Studies.

BAN TU THU
5 / 2023

(Nānā 35 manawa, 1 kipa i keia la)