ʻO Viet-Nam, Civilization and Culture – KA HANA

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Na PIERRE HUARD1
(ʻO ka lālā hanohano o ka École Française d'Extrême-Orient)
MAKA MAKAUWAI MAUA2
(He lālā o ka École Française d'Extrême-Orient3)
Hoʻoponopono hou ʻia 3rd edition 1998, ʻO Palapala ʻIla Kūʻai Nui,

     Bʻokoʻa ka poʻe i hoʻolaʻa iā lākou iho i ka ʻai a me nā ʻenehana lole (e nānā i nā mokuna XIV, XV, XVI), ua mahele paha ka poe paahana penei:

1° Nā mea hana lima e hana ana i nā metala (tinmen, keleawe-hoʻokumu, jewelers, niellists, kala kala, mea hana lima);
2° Nā mea hana hana ceramist (nā potera, nā mea hana lepo, nā mea hana porcelain, nā mea hana tile, nā mea hana pōhaku);
3° Nā mea hana lima e hana ana i ka lāʻau (ka mea hui, ka mea hana keena, kamana, ka mea pa'i, ka hana pepa, ka kala moana, ka mea kalai);
4° Nā mea hana lima hana lole (ka mea ulana pulupulu, ka jute, ka rami a me ka ulana silika, ka hana hīnaʻi, ka mea hana pea, ka mea kaula kaula, ka mea pale, ka moena, ka mea hana eke, ka makapo, ka papale, ka lole a me ka hamo.;

5° Nā mea hana lima e hana ana i ka ʻili (nā mea ʻili a me nā mea hana kāmaʻa);
6° Nā mea hana hana Lacquerware;
7° Nā mea kālai lāʻau a me nā pōhaku;
8° Nā mea hana lima e hana ana i nā pūpū, nā pū a me nā niho ʻelepani;
9° Na kanaka hana lima e hana i na mea hoomana.

     A ʻO ka hapa nui o kēia poʻe paʻahana he poʻe hana manuahi. Akā ʻo ka Hoʻokolokolo ma Huế ʻAʻole i hoʻokaʻawale i ka mea pena mai ka mea hana a loaʻa iā ia nā hale hana mokuʻāina maoli e pili ana i nā embroiderers, inlayers, niellists, lacquerers, sculptors, ivory-workers and jewelers.

     VʻO nā mea hana ietnamese he maʻalahi, māmā, maʻalahi e hana, kūpono i nā pilikia a ke kanaka akamai e hoʻoponopono ai i ka hoʻomanawanui a ʻaʻole e hoʻāʻo e hoʻemi i kona manawa.

      SHoʻololi pinepine ʻia nā ʻauamo a me nā kī e nā kihi lāʻau. ʻO nā mea hana o kēia manawa: nā levers, nā ʻūhā, nā ʻokiʻoki lāʻau, nā paʻi male, [Page 188] nā huila niho, nā axle a me nā huila locomotory, hydraulic force. (nā wili wai, nā kuʻi laiki), nā kaʻa kaʻa kanaka, nā kaʻa lūlū, nā huila liʻiliʻi a me nā piston (ʻo ka mea i manaʻo ʻia e hoʻi i kahi moʻomeheu synthetic hema-hikina i loko o kahi moʻomeheu sino-vietnamese i hoʻokaʻawale iā ia iho).

     MUa hoʻoikaika maikaʻi ʻo ercier i kēia mau mea hana. Akā, mamao mākou mai ka loaʻa ʻana, ma kēia kumuhana, ka mea like me ʻO Rudolf Hummer Kina ma ka hana.

     Che poʻe kālepa i ka manawa like. Like Awaits a me ʻEulopa, mālama lākou i kā lākou moʻokāki me ka hoʻohana ʻole ʻana i ka helu peni a me ka inika. Ua pani ʻia kēlā mau helu ʻana e ka abacus pake. Hoʻokahi hiʻohiʻona i Lương Thế Vinh (kauka i ka makahiki 1463) he hana helu i kapa ʻia ʻo “Toán pháp đại thành" (Kahua helu piha) ʻo ia paha ka hoʻololi ʻana o kahi puke e Vũ Hũu, kekahi o kona mau hoa, e lapaau ana me ka hoohana ana i ka abacus. Hoʻohana mau ka poʻe kālepa Kina i ka abacus, akā ua haʻalele kā lākou mau hoa Vietnamese. Ua hana ʻo Despierres i kahi noiʻi hou o ia mea.

    SHop-signs i kekahi manawa hōʻike i ka inoa o nā mea nona. Hoʻopuka pinepine lākou i kahi inoa kālepa, ʻelua mau huaʻōlelo Kina i kekahi manawa (a i ʻole kā lākou unuhi latin) i manaoia he pomaikai.

    Tkona ano xương ʻo ia ka "olua nani nui"A me"pono” hāʻawi Vĩnh Phát Xương "ka waiwai mau loa" a i ʻole Mỹ Xương "ka nani nani". ʻO nā inoa kālepa ʻē aʻe paha Vạn Bảo (he ʻumi kaukani momi), Đại Hưng (ulu nui), Quý Ký (hōʻailona hanohano) a Yên Thành (maluhia piha).
A ʻO ka hana pinepine i waena o nā mea kālepa, ʻo ia ka đõt vía đốt van.

      Chiki i nā lient ke loaʻa i ka manawa hoʻokahi vía lành or viia tốt (ʻuhane maikaʻi, puʻuwai maikaʻi), i kekahi manawa e viia xấu or vía dữ (nā ʻuhane ʻino, ʻino). Inā ʻo ka puʻuwai o ka mea kūʻai mua ino or dữ puka ʻo ia i waho o ka hale kūʻai me ke kūʻai ʻole ʻana i kekahi mea, ma hope o ke kūʻai ʻana lōʻihi, no laila, hiki i nā mea kūʻai aku ke hoʻohālike maikaʻi iā ia.

     II kēlā hihia, pono ka mea nāna ka hale kūʻai e pale i ka pōʻino i ka ʻoki ʻana a me ke puhi ʻana i ʻehiku mau ʻāpana mauʻu o kona pāpale ponoʻī inā he kāne ka mea kūʻai, a he ʻeiwa mau ʻāpana, inā he wahine ka mea kūʻai. Hoʻopuka ʻo ia i ka manawa like i ka ʻōlelo ʻana penei:

             Đốt vía, đốt van, đốt thằng rắn gan, đốt con rắn ruột, lành vía thì ở, dữ vía thì đi.
         "Puhi au i na uhane, puhi au i ke kanaka naau paakiki, ka wahine puuwai lokoino, a ke makemake nei au e mau na uhane maikai a e pau na mea ino.. "

       Ai hoʻokumu ʻia e kēlā manaʻo hoʻomanaʻo, i kēlā me kēia manawa ke hoʻomaka lākou i kahi hana, pepehi ka poʻe pōā i ka mea hele mua a lākou e hālāwai ai.

ʻia ....................

+ J. Silvestre. E hoʻohana ʻia nā memo i ka noiʻi a me ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana i nā kālā a me nā mekala o Annam a me French Cochin-china (Saigon, Imprimerie nationale, 1883).
+ GB Glover. ʻO nā ʻāpana kālā Pākē, Annamese, Iapana, Korea, nā ʻāpana kālā i hoʻohana ʻia ma ke ʻano he amulet o ke aupuni Kina a me nā memo pilikino. (Noronha and Co Hongkong, 1895).

+ Lemire. ʻO nā hana kahiko a me nā mea hou a me nā hoʻomana o Indochina (Paris, Challamel). Ua hana ʻia ka ʻaha kūkā ma ka lā 29 o Dekemaba ma ka Sociéte francaise des Ingénieurs coloniaux.
+ Désiré Lacroix. Nā helu helu Annamese, 1900.
+ Pouchat. ʻoihana Joss-sticks ma Tonquin, ma Revue Indochinoise, 1910–1911.

+ Cordier. Ma ka annamese art, ma Revue Indochinoise, 1912.
+ ʻO Marcel Bernanose. Nā mea hana kiʻi ma Tonquin (Decoration of metal, Jewellers), ma Revue Indochinoise, Ns 20, Iulai–Dekemaba 1913, p. 279–290.
+ A. Barbotin. ʻOihana puhi ahi ma Tonquin, ma Bulletin Economique de l'Indochine, Kepakemapa–ʻOkakopa 1913.

+ R. Orband. Nā keleawe kiʻi o Minh Mạng, ma BAVH, 1914.
+ L. Cadière. Noi ma Huế, ma BAVH, 1919.
+ M. Bernanose. Nā mea hoʻonaninani ma Tonquin, Parisa, 1922.
+ C. Gravelle. ʻO Annamese art, ma BAVH, 1925.

+ ʻO Albert Durier. ʻO ka hoʻonani Annamese, Palika 1926.
+ Beaucarnot (Claude). ʻO nā mea ʻenehana seramika no ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā ʻāpana seramika o nā kula kiʻi ma Indochina, Hanoi, 1930.
+ L Gilbert. ʻOihana ma Annam, ma BAVH, 1931.
+ Lemasson. ʻIke e pili ana i nā ʻano hana hānai iʻa ma ka delta tonquinese, 1993, p.707.

+ H. Gourdon. No Anam, Parisa, 1933.
+ Thân Trọng Khôi. ʻO nā huila hāpai o Quảng Nam a me nā hoe norias o Thừa Thiên, 1935, p. 349.
+ Guilleminet. Norias o Quảng Ngãi, ma BAVH, 1926.
+ Guilleminet. ʻO ka hoʻomākaukau kumu Soya i ka ʻai a Annamese, ma Bulletin économique de l'Indochine, 1935.
+ L. Feunteun. ʻO ka paʻi ʻana o nā hua ʻiʻo ma Cochinchina, ma Bulletin Economique de l'Indochine, 1935, p. 231.

[214]

+ Rudolf P. Hummel. Kina ma ka hana, 1937.
+ Aloha, Nā mea hana a nā mea hana hana Annamese, ma BEFEO, 1937.
+ RPY Laubie. Kiʻi kaulana ma Tonquin, ma BAVH, 1931.
+ P. Gourou. ʻOihana kauhale ma ka delta Tonquinese, International congress of Geography, 1938.

+ P. Gourou. Laau anise pake ma Tonquin (communiqué of agricultural services in Tonquin), 1938, p. 966.
+ Ch. Crevost. Nā kamaʻilio e pili ana i nā papa hana ma Tonquin, 1939.
+ G. de Coral Remusat. Nā kiʻi Annamese, nā kiʻi Moslem, ma Extreme-Orient, Paris, 1939.
+ Nguyễn Văn Tố. He helehelena kanaka ma ka annamese art, ma CEFEO, N°18, 1st ka makahiki 1939.

+ Henri Bouchon. Nā papa hana ʻōiwi a me nā hana hoʻohui, ma Indochine, 26 sept. 1940.
+ X… — Charles Crevost. He mea animator o ka papa hana tonquinese, ma Indochine, Iune 15, 1944.
+ Công nghệ thiệt hành (nā ʻoihana hana), ma Revue de Vulgarisation, Saigon, 1940.
+ Passignat. Na haku-Iacquerers o Hanoi, ma Indochine Feberuari 6, 1941.

+ Passignat. Laau, ma Indochine, Dec. 25, 1941.
+ Passignat. niho, ma Indochine, Ianuali 15, 1942.
+ Maluhia (R.) He hana kuʻuna Annamese: ʻoki lāʻau, ma Indochine, Oct. 1st, 1942.
+ Nguyễn Xuân Nghi alias Từ Lâm, Lược khảo mỹ thuật Việt Nam (Outline of Vietnamese Art), Hanoi, Thuỵ-ký hale paʻi, 1942.

+ L. Bezacier. Essay on Annamese art, Hanoi, 1944.
+ Paul Boudet. pepa Annamese, ma Indochine, Jan. 27 a Feb. 17, 1944.
+ Mạnh Quỳnh. ʻO ke kumu a me ka hōʻailona o nā ʻoki lāʻau kaulana o Tet, ma Indochine, Feb. 10, 1945.
+ ʻO Crevost a me Petelot. Catalog o nā huahana o Indochina, tome VI. ʻO nā tannins a me nā tinctorial (1941). [Hāʻawi ʻia nā inoa Vietnamese o nā huahana].

+ Augate Chevalier. ʻO ka papa helu mua o nā lāʻau a me nā mea ulu lāʻau ʻē aʻe o Tonquin, Hanoi, Ideo, 1919. (Hāʻawi ʻia nā inoa Vietnam).
+ Lecomte. ʻO ka ululāʻau o Indochina, Agence Economique de l'Indochine, Paris, 1926.
+ R. Bulteau. Nā memo no ka hana ʻana i nā ipu lepo ma ka ʻāina ʻo Bình Định, ma BAVH, 1927, p. 149 a me 184 (loaʻa kahi papa inoa maikaʻi o nā ipu lepo like ʻole o Bīnh Định a me ko lākou mau kiʻi a me ko lākou mau inoa kūloko).
+ Despierres. Pākē abacus, ma Sud-Est, 1951.

noka :
◊ Kumu: ʻO Connaisance du Vietnam, PIERRE HUARD & MAURICE DURAND, Hoʻoponopono hou 'ia 3 Edition 1998, ʻO Palapala ʻIla Kūʻai Nui, École Française DʻExtrême-Orient, Hanoi - Unuhi ʻia e VU THIEN KIM - NGUYEN PHAN ST Minh Nhat's Archives.
◊ Poʻomanaʻo poʻo, kiʻi sepia hōʻike ʻia a ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia nā ʻōlelo a pau e Ban Tu Thu - ma kahi o ka mea

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